Daily Archives: September 16, 2017

The Westminster Assembly & Instrumental Music In Public Worship

Instrumental Music in Public Worship: History Surrounding the Westminster Assembly


By John L. Girardeau (Still Waters Revival Books, [1888] 2000), pp. 132, 133.

Before the Westminster Assembly of Divines undertook the office of preparing a Directory of Worship, the Parliament had authoritatively adopted measures looking to the removal of organs, along with other remains of Popery, from the churches of England. On the 20th of May, 1644, the commissioners from Scotland wrote to the General Assembly of their church and made the following statement among others: “We cannot but admire the good hand of God in the great things done here already, particularly that the covenant, the foundation of the whole work, is taken, Prelacy and the whole train thereof extirpated, the service-book in many places forsaken, plain and powerful preaching set up, many colleges in Cambridge provided with such ministers as are most zealous of the best reformation, altars removed, the communion in some places given at the table with sitting, THE GREAT ORGANS AT PAUL’S AND PETER’S IN WESTMINSTER TAKEN DOWN (emphasis added), images and many other monuments of idolatry defaced and abolished, the Chapel Royal at Whitehall purged and reformed; and all by authority, in a quiet manner, at noon-day, without tumult.”1 So thorough was the work of removing organs that the “Encyclopaedia Britannica” says that “at the Revolution most of the organs in England had been destroyed.”2

When, therefore, the Assembly addressed itself to the task of framing a Directory for Worship, it found itself confronted by a condition of the churches of Great Britain in which the singing of psalms without instrumental accompaniment almost universally prevailed. In prescribing, consequently, the singing of psalms without making any allusion to the restoration of instrumental music, it must, in all fairness, be construed to specify the simple singing of praise as a part of public worship. The question, moreover, is settled by the consideration that had any debate occurred as to the propriety of allowing the use of instrumental music, the Scottish commissioners would have vehemently and uncompromisingly opposed that measure. But Lightfoot, who was a member of the Assembly, in his “Journal of its Proceedings”3 tells us: “This morning we fell upon the Directory for singing of psalms; and, in a short time, we finished it.” He says that the only point upon which the Scottish commissioners had some discussion was the reading of the Psalms line by line.


1. Girardeau cites this quotation from the Acts of Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1644.

2. Girardeau cites Art., Organ.

3. Girardeau cites Works, Vol. xiii., pp. 343, 344; London, 1825.

For information about the Puritans, including free and discounted Puritan books, Puritan MP3s, Puritan digital downloads, and Puritan videos, as well as the Puritan Hard Drive, please visit Still Waters Revival Books at .

We Discuss The Musical Instruments Used In Rhythm And Blues

Rhythm and blues is a variety of related but different types of music combined in to one. We will discuss some information on rhythm and blues and the main instruments that are commonly used in this type of music.

The most common types of instruments used in this type of music is a drum set, bass, a piano (an organ can often be used instead of the piano), and the guitar, while the horn section features saxophones, trumpets, and sometimes trombones. The importance on horns in most styles of this type of music has been one of the ways in which the music
has been historically recognized differently to that of white rock music.

What is musical instruments used in rhythm and blues known as

Today, rhythm and blues has become known as R&B and many black Americans have taken a major interest in this type of music. Rhythm and blues has gone more towards rap than the old style; many songs are now released that are classed as R&B when they are mostly rap. However they often do have a R&B melody in the background, but, it is no where near the same as this type of music once was.

Musical instruments used in rhythm and blues today

Today, the rhythm and blues style of music is ruling the musical scene once again. In the past has it has experienced several peaks of popularity, but, it normally dies out for a while after each peak. The 1950s are classed as a peak point for rhythm and blues; however, in the early 1960s it was replaced and died in popularity due to the huge popularity of soul music.

The popularity of musical instruments used in rhythm and blues

In the early 1980s, rhythm and blues peaked in popularity again, ruling the music industry alongside disco. The music then died out again. Recently, the music has become popular again with artists like Black eyed Peas, Mariah Carey, Jennifer Lopez, and other famous artists. If you trace the music style back over the decades, you will find it has had its peaks in popularity over the many decades, starting from the early 1950s.

From 2000 in to 2007, this style of music has been ruling the charts, maybe we will see a die in this type of music, however, with the current trends, and the way society is today, this music will likely continue to soar over in to the next decade. Only time will tell which type of music will rule the industry in the next few decades. This summarizes our musical instruments used in rhythm and blues article.

Cooking Can Be A Enjoyment

How Do Your View Cooking?

Despite the fact that this question is asked somewhat rhetorically, it is a question you really should ask yourself and answer. Do you view cooking as a chore or duty or do you view it as a project? There is something much more pleasurable about embarking on a new project than getting around to a loathsome chore. If you do view cooking as a chore the more fundamental question might be why?

Some common reasons that people dislike cooking include the following: lack of skill, lack of confidence, boredom, or you could simply dislike the inevitable clean up far more than you enjoy the process of cooking. For each of these, there are solutions if you are willing to make the effort.

A lack of skill when it comes to cooking can be easily corrected in most cases by taking a few cooking classes. Classes are offered for varying degrees of skill sets and are meant to help you develop your cooking talents while teaching you the basics of meal planning and preparation. You can increase your skills by taking more classes down the road. You can found a lot of those in a simple google search.

While a lack of confidence is a little more difficult to address having a few -dinner parties’ in which your quests can compliment your culinary talents can often solve this particular dilemma. The key in this process is to plan your menu carefully and remain well within your comfort zone. You will be amazed at the wonderfully rich and delicious meals that can be prepared with very little effort if you are willing to sift through the recipe books in order to find them.

Boredom in the kitchen is perhaps one of the easiest problems to fix there is. The solution is exceedingly simple-find a challenge. Try cooking Thai or Indian cuisine. Try more difficult recipes like recipes form resturants like I use and highly recommend. Try making only meals from scratch or simply try broadening your use of spices and seasonings. There are many things you can do in order to provide some pleasure back into your kitchen. You may even come across hidden talents and tastes in the process.

There will always be clean up. My suggestion is to make a deal with either your partner or your children and they can draw straws over who cleans up. Of course if this won’t work in your family, you could always turn over a new leaf and clean as you go whenever possible. This makes the clean up process after dinner so much simpler to handle that it is well worth a few extra minutes during meal prep.

Hospitals in India – complete healthcare Indian service

You can find best hospitals in India for your treatment and welfare. Now day’s medical industries growing very rapidly in India. Indian hospitals are well quipped and advanced infrastructure for providing best treatment to the patient. Indian doctors are specialist in heart, plastic surgery, cancer treatment, cardiology society, eye care, orthopedic and advance procedure like laparoscopic methods of surgery. Many foreigners are coming India for the treatment with booking medical tourism package to spend their days happily.

Every city has Government and private hospitals in India. Government hospitals provide treatments full of free service to the poor people and charging for the treatment is also low cost to everyone. Compared to government from private hospitals are little bit high in charging. But most of the hospitals are undertaken by Government and private hospitals also provide free treatment to the poor people. Another important fact about India, Ayurveda treatment is very popular and it cures lot disease in Natural manner. Kerala is the best place to take ayurveda treatment because it has wonderful situation and greenery calm place to take peaceful rest.st.

Follow up medical attention is impressive because these services are considered a very high priority in the responsibility of doctors; follow-ups are an essential promise all doctors take seriously in India. Hospitals in India has experienced and qualified staff’s, professional nurse, dentist, and cosmetic surgeons to take care of patient and their needs. The country has an interesting combination of rich cultural heritage and some of the most modern infrastructure and entertainment options. Some of the cultural heritage is visible in its ancient temples, mosques, places and its wide range of arts and crafts and dance. One can find a wide variety of good healthcare centres in the country. India is a perfect place for affordable healthcare and exotic tourism. Perfect place for relax and heal after medical procedures. Complete peace of mind and that is guaranteed.

The aim of the hospitals in India is to ensure the satisfaction and well-being of every patient. The main services are the same as in the western parts of the world, such as vaccination and immunization, exams for medical fitness, yoga therapy and psychiatric treatments, rehabilitation from injuries as well as nutritional and health education.

The hospitals in India are well equipped with the best in medicine and care. The combination of a wonderful culture and a place where the people are taken care of under the best of circumstances, makes India a place one can live or visit without having to worry about good medical care. With the popularity of such a country as a place where modern infrastructure and facilities meet with ancient and rich culture, India offers peace of mind when one needs a good hospital.

Indoor Basketball Game Review

The term indoor basketball game was brought to population from the original outdoor forerunner. This type of sport ideally matches into a home game room, and fortunately the basket can be purchased to a mostly reasonable price. This sport is perfect for kids who want to spend some free time at from doing something useful for their body and fitness. Even for parents, this type can be a relief and fun bringing opportunity every day.

Now, lets have a closer look on the board variant: There is a highly recommended brand called “Double Shot Pro” which is very common and frequently bought by Americans and Canadians. You can get these indoor basketball game boards by the manufactures, sites such as Ebay and Amazon for a very acceptable price. However, you have to include shipping costs which can be fairly expensive, mostly because each table weights above 100 pounds. These boards offer electronic scoring, action music or sound after you shot some hoops. Young kids just love the sound and excitement of the game much more than from a typical billiard or soccer match.

It is true, that indoor basketball game is probably made only for kids, and families who want to spend more quality time with their children. Undoubtedly, this game reaches its goal in every aspect. If you get such a board, it is suggested that at least 2 people are available when you get the order delivered in front of your house or flat. The reason is because this board weighs a ton, and one person alone will have a tough time carrying it inside the house or flat. Also note that most sellers are only shipping the item within the United States or Canada. If you are from European or other countries, you might want to search in these areas and look your ears on the ground in these areas.

Another good remarkable brand which provides indoor basketball game boards and accessories is called “Sportscraft”. They also offer varies items in different niches such as foosball etc. These boards are more expensive than from some other competitors, but have one of the best customer reputation and also quality. Here you can expect to pay somewhere around $ 1,000 for one board and will get the shipping for free. The typical dimension of one board is: 84 tall, 84 deep, and 50 wide. Sportscraft will ensure that each of you and your friends spend on this table, will be entertainment pure! This review was dedicated to revealing 2 different brands on indoor basketball game.

Some Ideas On Abstract Photography

This article covers four techniques which you can use to create abstract images. These techniques may be applied to various subject matter to produce great abstract photography.

Using Blur

The first technique is the deliberate blurring of objects. Photos with a dreamy feel work best with this technique. As a result, selecting the subject matter carefully is essential. After all, if the wrong subject matter is chosen, the final results will be discouraging.

This technique can be carried out in several ways. Perhaps the easiest way is to use a soft focus lens. However, this is also the costliest method. Another method is to use a soft focus filter which can be mounted on just about any lens. Using panty hose stretched over the lens is yet another method. Needless to say, the blur can always be added in the course of image editing with Photoshop (or any other editing software).

Zooming In on the Subject

To utilize this technique, a zoom lens is needed. The technique is fairly straightforward. A long shutter speed is chosen. Then, while the shutter is open, the photographer changes the focal length of the zoom lens. The standard approach is to start at a wide angle and zoom into a narrow angle.

With this technique, there are a few essential points. When using this technique, a tripod is really required. Without a tripod, the photo will be blurred by camera movement. A strong center of interest works best with this technique. For those images that lack a strong center of interest, the image often seems to be simply a bunch of blurry lines. Keeping these points in mind can help to enhance your abstract photos.

Don’t be surprised if you discover that you need to take many shots to create just one excellent abstract photo. This is just the way this technique functions. You can not accurately foresee the way a shot will come out. So, take many shots and pick the best one.

Partial Object

With this particular technique, the entire object is not photographed. Rather, the photographer isolates just a section of an object. Then, that section is photographed. The objective is to isolate the most interesting portion of an object.

Since form, color, and lines are very important when the partial object technique is used, objects should be selected based on these factors.

Photoshop Filters

Instead of creating abstract images at the time that an image is shot, Photoshop can be utilized to produce the abstract. Photoshop filters offer one easy way to do this. The Photoshop filters can be located in the Filter menu. The key here is to experiment with the various filters. After you are done experimenting, you can select the filter that produced the most intriguing results. Then, you can use that filter for the final image.


These techniques are very effective in creating eye-catching abstract images. The next step is to pick up your camera. Then, you just need to head out to create some great images.

Milan Reject Samp For Niang

AC Milan reported to have rejected a proposal from another Italian club Sampdoria in an attempt to get M’Baye Niang this summer.
Previous word got out that the young French striker will join Bluerchiati in summer more often in order to get a chance to play in the first team.
But the latest news is mentioned M’Baye Niang will remain at San Siro this season going into the squad because of the need for a return to Milan in the Champions Champins through qualifying.

How To Fully Clean A Virus Off Your Computer

If you are anything like I am, you have been infected by at least one virus and occasionally have a really hard time removing it. I will show you to remove these tough viruses without having to rebuild your computer or pay someone big money to do so.

Ok so you notice your computer is running very slow. You run your virus scan software and find one or more viruses. You clean them up and your computer still runs slow. You cant figure out why so you run another scan and find out that the same virus is still on your computer. How does this happen?

Basically, there are viruses that will drop into protected system files or startup files that hide within your computer. Sometimes they cannot be removed without rebuilding your computer but there are a few ways around this.

First things first, get a computer toolkit ready to destroy the virus on multiple levels. I recommend a spybot scanner, adware scanner, and virus scan. Plus it always helps to have a strong registry cleaner. Once you have all of these tools ready to go, get them updated fully and download the latest versions of each if possible. After you have updated all of these tools DISCONNECT your internet connection from the computer.

It is essential to disconnect from the internet because most of the imbedded viruses will connect to their host site after the main piece is removed and will download and install itself again without you knowing. Run all of your scan utilities first and restart your computer after they have finished. Once the computer is started up, run the scans once more and restart if the virus is back. If you cannot remove the virus within three restarts, further action is required and will more than likely result in a rebuild.

If you remove it, run a registry clean to remove any leftover tag files. This will also help speed up your computer slightly. Refer to my article 5 Easy Tips To Keep Your Computer Running Smooth And Safe for more computer optimization tips. Restart once more and connect to the internet once more. You should run one more scan to verify the virus is gone. If it is we are ready to go. If it isnt removed you will have to take a couple more steps.
Use your scan utilities to find out exactly where the files are located and remove them from the registry. Be warned that removing registry files can break your operating system.

How a Project Management Software Can Aid in the Timely Completion of Projects

A project is rated as successful only if it gets completed by the due date and utilizes that much quantum of resources as have been allocated for it. As a project has to operate within these constraints, it is a huge challenge for a project manager to ensure a project’s progress as per schedule and plan and guide it towards successful and timely completion. But this is not an easy task as infirmities, irritants keep on arising in a project which tend to affect the flow of a project. A project manager has to be agile enough in order to ensure smooth functioning over a project. But given the large number of people participating in a project and the high level of complexity of the processes and activities involved, a project manager cannot manage the project single handedly. He needs some sophisticated assistance in order to deal with the pressures and challenges emanating in a project.

A project management software like ProofHub relieves the project manager of his burden by aiding him to perform his job in a professional manner with more flexibility and control. This tool not only enables better communication amongst team members who are based in different locations around the world over a project matter, but also helps an organization to better connect with its clients. Discussions over important matters can be effortlessly arranged and team members can jointly discuss over a matter and lead to its prompt and effective resolution.

Tasks and activities in a project can be better described, documented, assigned, scheduled, executed and tracked through this tool. This imparts clarity to the employees who know which are the tasks they have to perform and by which point of time they have to complete them. Due dates of the tasks are timely conveyed to them through email notifications so they can compulsorily complete their tasks in time without missing them. Thus they can efficiently perform their duties and their individual performance over tasks can be better tracked.

Any problems or issues cropping in a project can be identified early and resolved firmly. This helps to keep a project on track without affecting its smooth flow.

This tool restores organization and orderliness in a project and ensures that its tasks and activities get executed in a smooth and satisfactory manner which is largely instrumental in guiding a project to its timely and successful completion.

Author Bio: ProofHub is a web based project management software that helps to manage, discuss and communicate projects with team and clients at a central place. To know more, visit

How To Build A Greenhouse Grade 7 Science Fair Projects

A greenhouse is basically a structure that has been designed to capture and retain the heat from the sun. It is used to grow plants when the climate does not want to cooperate. Greenhouses can be used in a number of science fair projects and can be used to test concepts from a variety of fields of sciences including engineering, physics, botany and biology.

Project #1 Capturing Heat Energy

In this project the students will be designing a greenhouse that captures heat energy from multiple sources. They will be capturing heat energy from the sun and geothermal heat energy from the ground. This project will require the student to learn about heat extraction techniques related to solar energy and geothermal energy.

Sample hypotheses that can be tested with this project include:
(1) The thickness of the plastic used for enclosing the greenhouse impacts the amount of heat conservation in the greenhouse;
(2) The opaqueness of the material used for enclosing the greenhouse impacts the amount of heat conservation in the greenhouse;
(3) The depth of the insulation on the floor of the greenhouse impacts the amount of geothermal heat conservation in the greenhouse.

Project #2 Growing Radishes

In this project the student will build a greenhouse so that they can grow radishes and conduct experiments on the radish plants during times of the year that are not normally conducive to gardening. Radish projects can look at a number of things. For example, students can try to cross pollinate radishes with another root vegetable like carrots, they can attempt to grow radishes in sand or they can try to manipulate the size of the radish by exposing the plant to 20 hours of light per day.

Project #3 Engineering Greenhouses

For students that are interested in engineering, greenhouse science fair projects can be developed with an engineering focus. For example, students can try to develop a greenhouse using nothing but materials that are normally thrown out or recycled, such as cans, bottles and plastic containers. Students will not only need to design and build their greenhouse, but they will also need to test the effectiveness their greenhouse has in regards to collecting and conserving heat energy.

Project #4 Studying Solar Energy Applications

The final project option will be an application project. Students will be learning about solar energy and how to use this knowledge to harness the suns energy to heat a greenhouse. For this project students will design and build a greenhouse that maximizes the energy delivered by the sun. A good approach for this project is to see if their design can magnify solar energy within the greenhouse to make it effective in cold weather.